Drawing Cube With CSS3 Transform

In this article I’m going to teach you how to draw a cube with CSS3 transitions. We will be able to rotate the cube with keyframes animation and JavaScript. See the examples below.

Cube animated using CSS keyframes

Live Demo

Below you can view test the script version. Click the rotation buttons to see the animated turns.

The HTML Code

All you need is a wrapper and a div element for each side. Below the cube I added the links to control the cube rotations.

<div id="wrapD3Cube">
    <div id="D3Cube">
        <div id="side1"></div>
        <div id="side2"></div>
        <div id="side3"></div>
        <div id="side4"></div>
        <div id="side5"></div>
        <div id="side6"></div>
    </div>
</div>
<p style="text-align: center;">
    <a onclick="turnLeft()">Left</a>
    <a onclick="turnRight()">Right</a> <br />
    <a onclick="flipCube()">Flip</a>
</p>

The CSS Styles

I colored the object according to the color scheme of a Rubik’s Cube and set a slight opacity. The six sides of the cube are positioned with the transform property.

#wrapD3Cube {
    width: 250px;
    height: 213px;
    margin: 20px auto;
    background-color: #EEE;
}
#D3Cube {
    width: 112px;
    height: 112px;
    top: 50px;
    transform-style: preserve-3d;
    -moz-transform-style: preserve-3d;
    -webkit-transform-style: preserve-3d;
    transform: rotateX(-22deg) rotateY(-38deg) rotateZ(0deg);
    -moz-transform: rotateX(-22deg) rotateY(-38deg) rotateZ(0deg);
    -webkit-transform: rotateX(-22deg) rotateY(-38deg) rotateZ(0deg);
    margin: auto;
    position: relative;
    -moz-transform-style: preserve-3d;
    transform-style: preserve-3d;
    -webkit-transition: all 0.5s ease-in-out;
    transition: all 0.5s ease-in-out;
}
#D3Cube > div {
    position: absolute;
    -webkit-transition: all 0.5s ease-in-out;
    transition: all 0.5s ease-in-out;
    width: 112px;
    height: 112px;
    float: left;
    overflow: hidden;
    opacity: 0.85;
}
#side1 {
    transform: rotatex(90deg) translateX(0px) translateY(0px) translateZ(56px);
    -moz-transform: rotatex(90deg) translateX(0px) translateY(0px) translateZ(56px);
    -webkit-transform: rotatex(90deg) translateX(0px) translateY(0px) translateZ(56px);
    background-color: #FFF;
}
#side2 {
    transform: rotateY(-90deg) translateX(0px) translateY(0px) translateZ(56px);
    -moz-transform: rotateY(-90deg) translateX(0px) translateY(0px) translateZ(56px);
    -webkit-transform: rotateY(-90deg) translateX(0px) translateY(0px) translateZ(56px);
    background-color: #ffaf1c;
}
#side3 {
    transform: translateX(0px) translateY(0px) translateZ(56px);
    -moz-transform: translateX(0px) translateY(0px) translateZ(56px);
    -webkit-transform: translateX(0px) translateY(0px) translateZ(56px);
    background-color: #58d568;
}
#side4 {
    transform: rotateY(90deg) translateX(0px) translateY(0px) translateZ(56px);
    -moz-transform: rotateY(90deg) translateX(0px) translateY(0px) translateZ(56px);
    -webkit-transform: rotateY(90deg) translateX(0px) translateY(0px) translateZ(56px);
    background-color: #ed3030;
}
#side5 {
    transform: rotateY(180deg) translateX(0px) translateY(0px) translateZ(56px);
    -moz-transform: rotateY(180deg) translateX(0px) translateY(0px) translateZ(56px);
    -webkit-transform: rotateY(180deg) translateX(0px) translateY(0px) translateZ(56px);
    background-color: #1c5ffe;
}
#side6 {
    transform: rotateX(-90deg) translateX(0px) translateY(0px) translateZ(56px);
    -moz-transform: rotateX(-90deg) translateX(0px) translateY(0px) translateZ(56px);
    -webkit-transform: rotateX(-90deg) translateX(0px) translateY(0px) translateZ(56px);
    background-color: #f2f215;
}

The Script

The script manipulates the rotateX, rotateY and rotateZ values of the transform CSS property:

var cubex = -22,    // initial rotation
cubey = -38,
cubez = 0;
function rotate(variableName, degrees) {
    window[variableName] = window[variableName] + degrees;
    rotCube(cubex, cubey, cubez);
}
function rotCube(degx, degy, degz){
    segs = "rotateX("+degx+"deg) rotateY("+degy+"deg) rotateZ("+degz+"deg) translateX(0) translateY(0) translateZ(0)";
    $('#D3Cube').css({"transform":segs});
}
function turnRight() {
    rotate("cubey", 90);
}
function turnLeft() {
    rotate("cubey", -90);
}
function flipCube() {
    rotate("cubez", -180);
}

Cube Rotation Animation With Keyframes

Rotating the cube with JavaScript is not the only way of animating the cube. We can use CSS keyframes to set a looping animation.

In this case we need to add the adjustments below to our style sheet. This will smoothly change the rotateY value. Play with the code in JSFiddle.

#D3Cube {
    -webkit-animation: cubeRotation 5s infinite; /* Safari 4.0 - 8.0 */
    animation: cubeRotation 5s infinite;
}
@-webkit-keyframes cubeRotation {
    0%   {  -webkit-transform: rotateX(-22deg) rotateY(-38deg) rotateZ(0deg);   }
    50%   { -webkit-transform: rotateX(-22deg) rotateY(-128deg) rotateZ(0deg);  }
    100%   {    -webkit-transform: rotateX(-22deg) rotateY(-398deg) rotateZ(0deg);  }
}
@keyframes cubeRotation {
    0%   {  transform: rotateX(-22deg) rotateY(-38deg) rotateZ(0deg);   }
    50%   { transform: rotateX(-22deg) rotateY(-238deg) rotateZ(0deg);  }
    100%   {    transform: rotateX(-22deg) rotateY(-398deg) rotateZ(0deg);  }
}

css3 transform 3D cube